The cells of your testicles, which produce sperms and other male hormones, can grow out of control, causing Testicular Cancer, like any other type. But the condition is rare and mostly affects young men of the 20-35 age group. It can affect both testis and can also spread to surrounding nodes, called the lymph nodes, which drain fluid from them, and other organs.
The risk of having the disease increases in persons who have/had undescended testis (AKA cryptorchidism), a condition in which one side of the scrotum remains empty and testis can be found in groin or abdomen, or in people who are immediate relatives of proven testicular cancer patients
Most common symptoms are:
Lump or swelling in the testicle
Heaviness or aching in the lower belly or testicles
Voice changes and facial and body hair growth in a very young boy (early puberty)
In some cases, there may be fluid collection in the scrotum which can be identified in children easily. The lump can be painless, and any painless lump should be seen by a doctor.
Anything that can increase the risk of getting a disease is called a risk factor. Different cancers have different risk factors. Having one or more of these risk factors doesn't necessarily mean one will get that cancer.
As testicular cancer is rare, the risk of developing it is small even if one has any risk factors.
Abnormal cells in testicle
Previous testicular cancer
Fortunately testicular cancer patients respond well to both chemotherapy (medicines) and radiation.
Treatment modalities are decided based on the stage of the disease and other risk factors.